On the 17th of July, 1945, a Swede named Gunder Hägg set the record for the mile run. His time of 4 minutes, 1.4 seconds lasted for an astounding nine years – leading many experts at the time to conclude that there was an absolute limit to the human body and that a 4-minute mile was impossible. A similar plateau has been observed in outcomes of cardiac arrest outside of the hospital, with no significant gains in survival to discharge from 1970 to 2001 and only marginal risk-adjusted gains from 2005 to 2012.
- Rea T.D.
- Eisenberg M.S.
- Becker L.J.
- Murray J.A.
- Hearne T.
Temporal trends in sudden cardiac arrest: a 25-year emergency medical services perspective.
Circulation. 2003; 107: 2780
2It is largely unknown whether the track record is any better for in-hospital cardiac arrests in patients presenting with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), which has seen considerable changes in management over the last two decades.
- Chan P.S.
- McNally B.
- Tang F.
- Kellermann A.
CARES Surveillance Group. Recent trends in survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States.
Circulation. 2014; 130: 1876
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- Temporal trends in sudden cardiac arrest: a 25-year emergency medical services perspective.Circulation. 2003; 107: 2780
- CARES Surveillance Group. Recent trends in survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States.Circulation. 2014; 130: 1876
Bhat AG, et al. In-hospital cardiac arrest complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction: Temporal trends and outcomes based on management strategy.
- Impact of timing of cardiac arrest during hospitalization on survival outcomes and subsequent length of stay.Resuscitation. 2017; 121: 117-122
- Risk factors for sudden cardiac arrest in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a retrospective cohort study.BMC Emerg Med. 2022; 169
- Risk factors for in-hospital cardiac arrest in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022; 80: 1788-1798
- Early vs. delayed in-hospital cardiac arrest complicating ST-elevation myocardial infarction receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention.Resuscitation. 2020; 148: 242-250
- Survival and neurologic recovery in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction resuscitated from cardiac arrest.JACC. 2009; 53: 409-415
Published online: March 15, 2023
Accepted: March 7, 2023
Received: March 4, 2023
© 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.