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Is all bystander CPR created equal? Further considerations in sex differences in cardiac arrest outcomes

      Prior research has described differences in the provision of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (bCPR) for women who experience out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Studies primarily describe a lower rate of bystander CPR provided to women who experience OHCA. Additionally, studies report conflicting results regarding survival to hospital discharge between the sexes; some studies report no difference, while other studies found worse survival for women.
      • Karlsson V.
      • Dankiewicz J.
      • Nielsen N.
      • et al.
      Association of gender to outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest – a report from the International Cardiac Arrest Registry.
      • Safdar B.
      • Stolz U.
      • Stiell I.G.
      • et al.
      Differential survival for men and women from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest varies by age: results from the OPALS study.
      • Morrison L.J.
      • Schmicker R.H.
      • Weisfeldt M.L.
      • et al.
      Effect of Gender on Outcome of Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest in the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium.
      • Mody P.
      • Pandey A.
      • Slutsky A.S.
      • et al.
      Gender-Based Differences in Outcomes Among Resuscitated Patients With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.
      • Kotini-Shah P.
      • Del Rios M.
      • Khosla S.
      • et al.
      Sex differences in outcomes for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United States.
      • Ahn K.O.
      • Shin S.D.
      • Hwang S.S.
      Sex disparity in resuscitation efforts and outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
      • Kim L.K.
      • Looser P.
      • Swaminathan R.V.
      • et al.
      Sex-Based Disparities in Incidence, Treatment, and Outcomes of Cardiac Arrest in the United States, 2003–2012.
      While these reports have shown conflicting results, the primary notion that women receive less bystander CPR has been duplicated in multiple local and international investigations. Resources have been dedicated to determining the reasons for measured differences in the care provided to women who suffer OHCA and ways to mitigate this differential treatment.
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