What are the care needs of families experiencing cardiac arrest?: A survivor and family led scoping review



      The sudden and unexpected cardiac arrest of a family member can be a grief-filled and life-altering event. Every year many hundreds of thousands of families experience the cardiac arrest of a family member. However, care of the family during the cardiac arrest and afteris poorly understood and incompletely described. This review has been performed with persons with lived experience of cardiac arrest to describe, “What are the needs of families experiencing cardiac arrest?” from the moment of collapse until the outcome is known.


      This review was guided by specific methodological framework and reporting items (PRISMA-ScR) as well as best practices in patient and public involvement in research and reporting (GRIPP2). A search strategy was developed for eight online databases and a grey literature review. Two reviewers independently assessed all articles for inclusion and extracted relevant study information.


      We included 47 articles examining the experience and care needs of families experiencing cardiac arrest of a family member. Forty one articles were analysed as six represented duplicate data. Ten family care need themes were identified across five domains. The domains and themes transcended cardiac arrest setting, aetiology, family-member age and family composition. The five domains were i) focus on the family member in cardiac arrest, ii) collaboration of the resuscitation team and family, iii) consideration of family context, iv) family post-resuscitation needs, and v) dedicated policies and procedures. We propose a conceptual model of family centred cardiac arrest.


      Our review provides a comprehensive mapping and description of the experience of families and their care needs during the cardiac arrest of a family-member. Furthermore, our review was conducted with co-investigators and collaborators with lived experience of cardiac arrest (survivors and family members of survivors and non-survivors alike). The conceptual framework of family centred cardiac arrest care presented may aid resuscitation scientists and providers in adopting greater family centeredness to their work.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
      Subscribe to Resuscitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Atwood C.
        • Eisenberg M.S.
        • Herlitz J.
        • Rea T.D.
        Incidence of EMS-treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe.
        Resuscitation. 2005; 67: 75-80https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2005.03.021
        • Hawkes C.
        • Booth S.
        • Ji C.
        • et al.
        Epidemiology and outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in England.
        Resuscitation. 2017; 110: 133-140https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2016.10.030
        • Merchant R.M.
        • Yang L.
        • Becker L.B.
        • et al.
        Incidence of treated cardiac arrest in hospitalized patients in the United States*.
        Crit Care Med. 2011; 39: 2401-2406https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182257459
        • Nolan J.P.
        • Soar J.
        • Smith G.B.
        • et al.
        Incidence and outcome of in-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom National Cardiac Arrest Audit.
        Resuscitation. 2014; 85: 987-992https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.04.002
        • De Stefano C.
        • Normand D.
        • Jabre P.
        • et al.
        Family Presence during Resuscitation: A Qualitative Analysis from a National Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial.
        PLOS ONE. 2016; 11: e0156100https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.015610010.1371/journal.pone.0156100.g00110.1371/journal.pone.0156100.t00110.1371/journal.pone.0156100.t00210.1371/journal.pone.0156100.t00310.1371/journal.pone.0156100.s001
        • Jang K.
        • Choe K.
        Bereavement experiences after the unexpected death of an older family member in the emergency department.
        Int Emerg Nurs. 2019; 42: 7-11https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ienj.2018.10.006
        • Keyes K.M.
        • Pratt C.
        • Galea S.
        • McLaughlin K.A.
        • Koenen K.C.
        • Shear M.K.
        The burden of loss: unexpected death of a loved one and psychiatric disorders across the life course in a national study.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2014; 171: 864-871https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13081132
        • Sawyer K.N.
        • Camp-Rogers T.R.
        • Kotini-Shah P.
        • et al.
        Sudden Cardiac Arrest Survivorship: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2020; 141https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000747
        • Doyle C.J.
        • Post H.
        • Burney R.E.
        • Maino J.
        • Keefe M.
        • Rhee K.J.
        Family participation during resuscitation: an option.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1987; 16: 673-675
        • Oczkowski S.JW.
        • Mazzetti I.
        • Cupido C.
        • Fox-Robichaud A.E.
        The offering of family presence during resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Intensive Care. 2015; 3https://doi.org/10.1186/s40560-015-0107-2
        • de Caen A.R.
        • Berg M.D.
        • Chameides L.
        • et al.
        Part 12: Pediatric Advanced Life Support: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.
        Circulation. 2015; 132: S526-S542https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000266
        • Dainty K.N.
        • Atkins D.L.
        • Breckwoldt J.
        • et al.
        Family presence during resuscitation in paediatric and neonatal cardiac arrest: A systematic review.
        Resuscitation. 2021; 162: 20-34https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.01.017
        • Clay A.
        • Parsh B.
        Patient- and Family-Centered Care: It’s Not Just for Pediatrics Anymore.
        AMA J Ethics. 2016; 18: 40-44https://doi.org/10.1001/journalofethics.2016.18.1.medu3-1601
        • Kokorelias K.M.
        • Gignac M.A.M.
        • Naglie G.
        • Cameron J.I.
        Towards a universal model of family centered care: a scoping review.
        BMC Health Serv Res. 2019; 19: 1-11https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4394-5
        • Dainty K.N.
        • Morrison L.J.
        • Vaillancourt C.
        • et al.
        Partnering with survivors and families to set cardiac arrest research priorities: Moving towards more patient-oriented resuscitation research.
        Circulation. 2020; 140https://doi.org/10.1161/circ.140.suppl_2.142
        • Arksey H.
        • O'Malley L.
        Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework.
        Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005; 8: 19-32https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616
        • Levac D.
        • Colquhoun H.
        • O'Brien K.K.
        Scoping studies: advancing the methodology.
        Implement Sci. 2010; 5https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-69
        • Aromataris E.
        • Munn Z.
        JBI Reviewer’s Manual.
        JBI, 2019 (https://doi.org/10.46658/JBIRM-19-01)
        • Tricco A.C.
        • Lillie E.
        • Zarin W.
        • et al.
        PRISMA Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and Explanation.
        Ann Intern Med. 2018; 169: 467-473https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850
        • Staniszewska S.
        • Brett J.
        • Simera I.
        • et al.
        GRIPP2 reporting checklists: tools to improve reporting of patient and public involvement in research.
        BMJ. 2017; https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j3453
        • Douma M.J.
        • Ali S.
        • Bone A.
        • et al.
        The Needs of Families During Cardiac Arrest Care: A Survivor- and Family-led Scoping Review Protocol.
        J Emerg Nurs. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2021.02.006
        • Scherer R.W.
        • Saldanha I.J.
        How should systematic reviewers handle conference abstracts? A view from the trenches.
        Syst Rev. 2019; 8: 264https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1188-0
      1. The Canadian Agancy for Grugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). Grey matters: a practical tool for searching health-related grey literature Internet., 2018.

        • Douma M.J.
        • MacKenzie E.
        • Loch T.
        • et al.
        Prone cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A scoping and expanded grey literature review for the COVID-19 pandemic.
        Resuscitation. 2020; 155: 103-111https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.07.010
        • Berger R.
        Now I see it, now I don’t: researcher’s position and reflexivity in qualitative research.
        Qual Res. 2015; 15: 219-234https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794112468475
        • Tiscar-Gonzalez V.
        • Gastaldo D.
        • Moreno-Casbas M.T.
        • Peter E.
        • Rodriguez-Molinuevo A.
        • Gea-Sanchez M.
        Presence of relatives during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Perspectives of health professionals, patients and family in the Basque Country.
        Presencia Fam Durante Reanim Cardiopulmonar Perspect Pacientes Fam Prof Salud En El Pais Vasco. 2019; 51: 269-277https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aprim.2017.12.002
        • Twibell R.S.
        • Craig S.
        • Siela D.
        • Simmonds S.
        • Thomas C.
        Being there: inpatients’ perceptions of family presence during resuscitation and invasive cardiac procedures.
        Am J Crit Care. 2015; 24: e108-e115https://doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2015470
        • Wagner J.M.
        Lived Experience of Critically Ill Patients’ Family Members During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.
        Am J Crit Care. 2004; 13: 416-420https://doi.org/10.4037/ajcc2004.13.5.416
        • Wallin E.
        • Larsson I.M.
        • Sellert-Rydberg M.
        • Rubertsson S.
        • Kristofferzon M.L.
        Support and impact on everyday life after survival from cardiac arrest: Relatives’ descriptions 6 months after a significant other’s cardiac arrest.
        Intensive Care Med. 2011; 37: S74
        • Weslien M.
        • Nilstun T.
        • Lundqvist A.
        • Fridlund B.
        When the unreal becomes real: family members’ experiences of cardiac arrest.
        Nurs Crit Care. 2005; 10: 15-22https://doi.org/10.1111/ncr.2005.10.issue-110.1111/j.1362-1017.2005.00094.x
        • Wisten A.
        • Zingmark K.
        Supportive needs of parents confronted with sudden cardiac death—A qualitative study.
        Resuscitation. 2007; 74: 68-74https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2006.11.014
        • Steffen E.M.
        • Timotijevic L.
        • Coyle A.
        A qualitative analysis of psychosocial needs and support impacts in families affected by young sudden cardiac death: The role of community and peer support.
        Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs J Work Group Cardiovasc Nurs Eur Soc Cardiol. 2020; https://doi.org/10.1177/1474515120922347
        • Stewart S.A.
        Parents’ Experience During a Child’s Resuscitation: Getting Through It.
        J Pediatr Nurs-Nurs Care Child Fam. 2019; 47: 58-67https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2019.04.019
        • Meyers T.A.
        • Eichhorn D.J.
        • Guzzetta C.E.
        Do families want to be present during CPR? A retrospective survey.
        J Emerg Nurs. 1998; 24: 400-405
        • Perman S.M.
        • Siry B.
        • Reich J.A.
        • Abella B.S.
        • Daugherty S.L.
        • Havranek E.P.
        Family member perceptions of decision-making for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest.
        Circulation. 2018; 138
        • Sak-Dankosky N.
        • Andruszkiewicz P.
        • Sherwood P.R.
        • Kvist T.
        Preferences of patients’ family regarding family-witnessed cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A qualitative perspective of intensive care patients’ family members.
        Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2019; 50: 95-102https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iccn.2018.04.001
        • Mawer C.
        How Can We Make Out-of-Hospital CPR More Family Centered?.
        AMA J Ethics. 2019; 21: E461-E469https://doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2019.461
        • Maxton F.J.C.
        Parental presence during resuscitation in the PICU: the parents’ experience.
        J Clin Nurs. 2008; 17: 3168-3176https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02525.x
        • Mayer D.M.
        • Rosenfeld A.G.
        • Gilbert K.
        Lives forever changed: Family bereavement experiences after sudden cardiac death.
        Appl Nurs Res. 2013; 26: 168-173https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2013.06.007
        • Larsson I.-M.
        • Wallin E.
        • Rubertsson S.
        • Kristoferzon M.-L.
        Relatives’ experiences during the next of kin’s hospital stay after surviving cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia.
        Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs J Work Group Cardiovasc Nurs Eur Soc Cardiol. 2013; 12: 353-359https://doi.org/10.1177/1474515112459618
        • Lof S.
        • Sandstrom A.
        • Engstrom A.
        Patients treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest: relatives’ experiences.
        J Adv Nurs. 2010; 66: 1760-1768https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05352.x
        • Masquelier E.
        • Vandecasteele T.
        • Verhaeghe S.
        Family presence during resuscitation: Perspective of family members and emergency care providers.
        Resuscitation. 2015; 96: 31https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.09.072
        • Mathiesen W.T.
        • Bjørshol C.A.
        • Braut G.S.
        • Søreide E.
        Reactions and coping strategies in lay rescuers who have provided CPR to out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims: a qualitative study.
        BMJ Open. 2016; 6: e010671https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010671
        • Holm M.S.
        • Norekvål T.M.
        • Fålun N.
        • Gjengedal E.
        Partners’ ambivalence towards cardiac arrest and hypothermia treatment: a qualitative study.
        Nurs Crit Care. 2012; 17: 231-238https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1478-5153.2012.00490.x
        • Hung M.S.Y.
        • Pang S.M.C.
        Family presence preference when patients are receiving resuscitation in an accident and emergency department.
        J Adv Nurs. 2011; 67: 56-67https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05441.x
        • Illum C.
        The hypothermia treated patient. A qualitative study of the experiences of spouses of intensive care hypothermia treated patients.
        Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2012; 1: 87-88https://doi.org/10.1177/2048872612461726
        • Bremer A.
        • Creutz T.
        • Pettersson G.J.
        Family members’ experiences of care provided by ambulance staff in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest situations.
        Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2015; 14
        • Bremer A.
        • Dahlberg K.
        • Sandman L.
        Experiencing Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: Significant Others’ Lifeworld Perspective.
        Qual Health Res. 2009; 19: 1407-1420https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732309348369
        • Burns M.
        • McInnis-Perry G.
        • MacQuarrie C.
        • Murray C.
        Anticipating the awakening: The lived experience of families of patients undergoing successful targeted temperature management after cardiac arrest.
        Can J Crit Care Nurs. 2018; 29: 17-24
        • Carlsson N.
        • Bremer A.
        • Alvariza A.
        • Årestedt K.
        • Axelsson L.
        Losing a close person following death by sudden cardiac arrest: Bereaved family members’ lived experiences.
        Death Stud. 2020; : 1-10https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1799453
        • Cole R.
        • Stone M.
        • Ruck Keene A.
        • Fritz Z.
        Family members, ambulance clinicians and attempting CPR in the community: the ethical and legal imperative to reach collaborative consensus at speed.
        J Med Ethics. 2021; 47: 650-653https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2020-106490
        • Edwardsen E.A.
        • Chiumento S.
        • Davis E.
        Family perspective of medical care and grief support after field termination by emergency medical services personnel: a preliminary report.
        Prehospital Emerg Care Off J Natl Assoc EMS Physicians Natl Assoc State EMS Dir. 2002; 6: 440-444
        • McGahey-Oakland P.R.
        • Lieder H.S.
        • Young A.
        • Jefferson L.S.
        Family Experiences During Resuscitation at a Children’s Hospital Emergency Department.
        J Pediatr Health Care. 2007; 21: 217-225https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2006.12.001
        • Merlevede E.
        • Spooren D.
        • Henderick H.
        • et al.
        Perceptions, needs and mourning reactions of bereaved relatives confronted with a sudden unexpected death.
        Resuscitation. 2004; 61: 341-348https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2004.01.024
        • Pußwald G.
        • Fertl E.
        • Faltl M.
        • Auff E.
        Neurological rehabilitation of severely disabled cardiac arrest survivors. Part II. Life situation of patients and families after treatment.
        Resuscitation. 2000; 47: 241-248
        • Sawyer K.N.
        • Brown F.
        • Christensen R.
        • Damino C.
        • Newman M.M.
        • Kurz M.C.
        Surviving Sudden Cardiac Arrest: A Pilot Qualitative Survey Study of Survivors.
        Ther Hypothermia Temp Manag. 2016; 6: 76-84https://doi.org/10.1089/ther.2015.0031
        • Schmidt T.A.
        • Harrahill M.A.
        Family Response to Out-of-hospital Death.
        Acad Emerg Med. 1995; 2: 513-518https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1553-2712.1995.tb03250.x
        • Tinsley C.
        • Hill J.B.
        • Shah J.
        • et al.
        Experience of Families During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit.
        Pediatrics. 2008; 122: e799-e804https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-3650
        • Voisey S.
        • Davies J.
        • Parry-Jones J.
        • Stallard N.
        Five years experience of critical care bereavement follow-up.
        Crit Care. 2007; 11: P494https://doi.org/10.1186/cc5654
        • Zimmerli M.
        • Tisljar K.
        • Balestra G.-M.
        • Langewitz W.
        • Marsch S.
        • Hunziker S.
        Prevalence and risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in relatives of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients.
        Resuscitation. 2014; 85: 801-808https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.02.022
        • Shinada K.
        • Kohno T.
        • Fukuda K.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and determinants of complicated grief in bereaved caregivers of patients admitted for cardiovascular diseases.
        Eur Heart J. 2019; 40: 1285https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz748.0110
        • Jabre P.
        • Belpomme V.
        • Azoulay E.
        • et al.
        Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
        N Engl J Med. 2013; 368: 1008-1018https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1203366
        • Soleimanpour H.
        • Tabrizi J.S.
        • Jafari Rouhi A.
        • et al.
        Psychological effects on patient’s relatives regarding their presence during resuscitation.
        J Cardiovasc Thorac Res. 2017; 9: 113-117https://doi.org/10.15171/jcvtr.2017.19
        • Mcmahon-Parkes K.
        • Moule P.
        • Benger J.
        • Albarran J.W.
        The views and preferences of resuscitated and non-resuscitated patients towards family witnessed resuscitation: a qualitative study.
        Int J Nurs Stud. 2009; 46: 220-229https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.08.007
        • Othman E.H.
        • Al Omar S.
        • Abualruz H.
        • Safadi R.
        An Islamic cultural perspective of family presence during resuscitation.
        Resuscitation. 2020; 151: 75-76https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.04.007
        • Mentzelopoulos S.D.
        • Couper K.
        • Voorde P.V.d.
        • et al.
        European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: Ethics of resuscitation and end of life decisions.
        Resuscitation. 2021; 161: 408-432https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.02.017
        • Ku B.
        • Lupton E.
        Health design thinking: creating products and services for better health.
        The MIT Press, Cambridge2020
        • Brown K.
        • Mace S.E.
        • Dietrich A.M.
        • Knazik S.
        • Schamban N.E.
        Patient and family–centred care for pediatric patients in the emergency department.
        CJEM. 2008; 10: 38-43https://doi.org/10.1017/S1481803500009994
        • Brady M.T.
        • Crim L.
        • Caldwell L.
        • Koranyi K.
        Family-centered care: a paradigm for care of the HIV-affected family.
        Pediatr AIDS HIV Infect. 1996; 7: 168-175
        • Callahan H.E.
        Families Dealing With Advanced Heart Failure: A Challenge and an Opportunity.
        Crit Care Nurs Q. 2003; 26: 230-243https://doi.org/10.1097/00002727-200307000-00009
        • Johnson S.K.
        • Craft M.
        • Titler M.
        • et al.
        Perceived Changes in Adult Family Members’ Roles and Responsibilities During Critical Illness.
        Image J Nurs Sch. 1995; 27: 238-243https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1547-5069.1995.tb00866.x
        • Visser-Meily A.
        • Post M.
        • Gorter J.W.
        • Berlekom S.B.V.
        • Van Den Bos T.
        • Lindeman E.
        Rehabilitation of stroke patients needs a family-centred approach.
        Disabil Rehabil. 2006; 28: 1557-1561https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280600648215
        • Teno J.M.
        • Casey V.A.
        • Welch L.C.
        • Edgman-Levitan S.
        Patient-Focused, Family-Centered End-of-Life Medical Care.
        J Pain Symptom Manage. 2001; 22: 738-751https://doi.org/10.1016/S0885-3924(01)00335-9
        • Calder L.A.
        • Mastoras G.
        • Rahimpour M.
        • et al.
        Team communication patterns in emergency resuscitation: a mixed methods qualitative analysis.
        Int J Emerg Med. 2017; 10https://doi.org/10.1186/s12245-017-0149-4
        • Mentzelopoulos S.D.
        • Bossaert L.
        • Raffay V.
        • et al.
        A survey of key opinion leaders on ethical resuscitation practices in 31 European Countries.
        Resuscitation. 2016; 100: 11-17https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2015.12.010
        • Kon A.A.
        • Davidson J.E.
        • Morrison W.
        • Danis M.
        • White D.B.
        Shared Decision Making in ICUs: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement.
        Crit Care Med. 2016; 44: 188-201https://doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000001396
        • Mentzelopoulos S.D.
        • Slowther A.-M.
        • Fritz Z.
        • et al.
        Ethical challenges in resuscitation.
        Intensive Care Med. 2018; 44: 703-716https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-018-5202-0
        • Brazil K.
        • Carter G.
        • Cardwell C.
        • et al.
        Effectiveness of advance care planning with family carers in dementia nursing homes: A paired cluster randomized controlled trial.
        Palliat Med. 2018; 32: 603-612https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216317722413
        • Hoell J.I.
        • Weber H.L.
        • Balzer S.
        • et al.
        Advance care planning and outcome in pediatric palliative home care.
        Oncotarget. 2018; 9: 17867-17875
        • O'Halloran P.
        • Noble H.
        • Norwood K.
        • et al.
        Advance Care Planning With Patients Who Have End-Stage Kidney Disease: A Systematic Realist Review.
        J Pain Symptom Manage. 2018; 56: 795-807.e18https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2018.07.008
        • Pfeifer M.
        • Head B.
        Which Critical Communication Skills Are Essential for Interdisciplinary End-of-Life Discussions?.
        AMA J Ethics. 2018; 20: E724-E731https://doi.org/10.1001/amajethics.2018.724
        • Oczkowski S.J.W.
        • Chung H.-O.
        • Hanvey L.
        • Mbuagbaw L.
        • You J.J.
        Communication tools for end-of-life decision-making in the intensive care unit: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Crit Care. 2016; 20: 97https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1264-y
        • Hinkle L.J.
        • Bosslet G.T.
        • Torke A.M.
        Factors Associated With Family Satisfaction With End-of-Life Care in the ICU.
        Chest. 2015; 147: 82-93https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.14-1098
        • Fritz Z.
        • Slowther A.-M.
        • Perkins G.D.
        Resuscitation policy should focus on the patient, not the decision.
        BMJ. 2017; : j813https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j813
        • Brinkman-Stoppelenburg A.
        • Rietjens J.AC.
        • van der Heide A.
        The effects of advance care planning on end-of-life care: A systematic review.
        Palliat Med. 2014; 28: 1000-1025https://doi.org/10.1177/0269216314526272
        • Grunau B.
        • Scheuermeyer F.
        • Kawano T.
        • et al.
        North American validation of the Bokutoh criteria for withholding professional resuscitation in non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
        Resuscitation. 2019; 135: 51-56https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2019.01.008
        • Druwé P.
        • Benoit D.D.
        • Monsieurs K.G.
        • et al.
        Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Adults Over 80: Outcome and the Perception of Appropriateness by Clinicians.
        J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020; 68: 39-45https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.v68.110.1111/jgs.16270
        • Hansen C.
        • Lauridsen K.G.
        • Schmidt A.S.
        • Løfgren B.
        Decision-making in cardiac arrest: physicians’ and nurses’ knowledge and views on terminating resuscitation.
        Open Access Emerg Med. 2018; 11: 1-8https://doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S183248
        • McLaughlin K.A.
        • Greif Green J.
        • Gruber M.J.
        • Sampson N.A.
        • Zaslavsky A.M.
        • Kessler R.C.
        Childhood Adversities and First Onset of Psychiatric Disorders in a National Sample of US Adolescents.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012; 69: 1151https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.2277
        • Roine R.O.
        Neuropsychological sequelae of cardiac arrest.
        JAMA J Am Med Assoc. 1993; 269: 237-242https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.269.2.237
        • Lundgren-Nilsson Å.
        • Rosén H.
        • Hofgren C.
        • Sunnerhagen K.S.
        The first year after successful cardiac resuscitation.
        Resuscitation. 2005; 66: 285-289https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2005.04.001
        • Wachelder E.M.
        • Moulaert V.R.M.P.
        • van Heugten C.
        • Verbunt J.A.
        • Bekkers S.C.A.M.
        • Wade D.T.
        Life after survival: Long-term daily functioning and quality of life after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.
        Resuscitation. 2009; 80: 517-522https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resuscitation.2009.01.020
        • Middelkamp W.
        • Moulaert V.RMP.
        • Verbunt J.A.
        • van Heugten C.M.
        • Bakx W.G.
        • Wade D.T.
        Life after survival: long-term daily life functioning and quality of life of patients with hypoxic brain injury as a result of a cardiac arrest.
        Clin Rehabil. 2007; 21: 425-431https://doi.org/10.1177/0269215507075307
        • Košir M.
        • Simonič B.
        • Gostečnik C.
        • et al.
        Relational Family Therapy in the Treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest Survivors and their Relatives.
        Pers Chall J Theol Educ Canon Law Soc Stud Inspired Pope John Paul II. 2021; 11: 249https://doi.org/10.15633/pch.3894
        • Curley M.A.Q.
        • Meyer E.C.
        • Scoppettuolo L.A.
        • et al.
        Parent Presence during Invasive Procedures and Resuscitation: Evaluating a Clinical Practice Change.
        Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012; 186: 1133-1139https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201205-0915OC
        • Feagan L.M.
        • Fisher N.J.
        The Impact of Education on Provider Attitudes Toward Family-Witnessed Resuscitation.
        J Emerg Nurs. 2011; 37: 231-239https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2010.02.023
        • Pye S.
        • Kane J.
        • Jones A.
        Parental Presence During Pediatric Resuscitation: The Use of Simulation Training for Cardiac Intensive Care Nurses.
        J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2010; 15: 172-175https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6155.2010.00236.x
        • Mian P.
        • Warchal S.
        • Whitney S.
        • Fitzmaurice J.
        • Tancredi D.
        Impact of a Multifaceted Intervention on Nurses’ and Physicians’ Attitudes and Behaviors Toward Family Presence During Resuscitation.
        Crit Care Nurse. 2007; 27: 52-61https://doi.org/10.4037/ccn2007.27.1.52
        • Lyon M.E.
        • Garvie P.A.
        • Briggs L.
        • He J.
        • McCarter R.
        • D'Angelo L.J.
        Development, Feasibility, and Acceptability of the Family/Adolescent-Centered (FACE) Advance Care Planning Intervention for Adolescents with HIV.
        J Palliat Med. 2009; 12: 363-372https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2008.0261
        • Baker J.N.
        • Barfield R.
        • Hinds P.S.
        • Kane J.R.
        A Process to Facilitate Decision Making in Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation: The Individualized Care Planning and Coordination Model.
        Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2007; 13: 245-254https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2006.11.013