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Chest compression components (rate, depth, chest wall recoil and leaning): A scoping review

  • Julie Considine
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author at: Deakin University, School of Nursing and Midwifery/Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research, 1 Gheringhap St, Geelong, Victoria, 3220, Australia.
    Affiliations
    Deakin University, School of Nursing and Midwifery/Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research, 1 Gheringhap St, Geelong, Victoria, 3220, Australia

    Centre for Quality and Patient Safety Research – Eastern Health Partnership, 5 Arnold St, Box Hill, Victoria, 3128, Australia

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Raúl J. Gazmuri
    Affiliations
    Resuscitation Institute, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, United States

    Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center, 3001 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL, United States

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Gavin D. Perkins
    Affiliations
    Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK

    Critical Care Unit, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B9 5SS, UK

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Peter J. Kudenchuk
    Affiliations
    Division of Cardiology/Electrophysiology Services, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, WA, 98195-6422, United States

    King County Medic One, Public Health, Seattle & King County, WA, United States

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Theresa M. Olasveengen
    Affiliations
    Department of Anesthesiology, Oslo University Hospital, PO Box 4956 Nydalen, Oslo 0424, Norway

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Christian Vaillancourt
    Affiliations
    Emergency Medicine, University of Ottawa, United States

    Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Civic Campus, Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Rm F649, 1053 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, K1Y 4E9, Canada

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Chika Nishiyama
    Affiliations
    Department of Critical Care Nursing, Kyoto University Graduate School of Human Health Science, 53 Shogoin Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Tetsuo Hatanaka
    Affiliations
    Emergency Life-Saving Technique Academy, 3-8-1 Oura, Yahatanishi, Kitakyushu, 800-0213 Fukuoka, Japan

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Mary E. Mancini
    Affiliations
    The University of Texas at Arlington, College of Nursing and Health Innovation, 411 S. Nedderman Drive, Box 19407, Arlington, TX 76019-0407, United States

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Sung Phil Chung
    Affiliations
    Emergency Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University, 211 Eonju-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Raffo Escalante-Kanashiro
    Affiliations
    Departamento de Emergencias y Áreas Críticas, Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño, Lima, Peru

    InterAmerican Heart Foundation/Emergency Cardiovascular Care, Peru

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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  • Peter Morley
    Affiliations
    Intensive Care, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, 300 Grattan Street, Parkville, Victoria, 3050, Australia

    Royal Melbourne Hospital Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Grattan Street, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia

    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, Basic Life Support Task Force, Dallas, TX, United States
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      Abstract

      Aim

      To understand whether the science to date has focused on single or multiple chest compression components and identify the evidence related to chest compression components to determine the need for a full systematic review.

      Methods

      This review was undertaken by members of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation and guided by a specific methodological framework and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed human studies that examined the effect of different chest compression depths or rates, or chest wall or leaning, on physiological or clinical outcomes. The databases searched were MEDLINE complete, Embase, and Cochrane.

      Results

      Twenty-two clinical studies were included in this review: five observational studies involving 879 patients examined both chest compression rate and depth; eight studies involving 14,285 patients examined chest compression rate only; seven studies involving 12001 patients examined chest compression depth only, and two studies involving 1848 patients examined chest wall recoil. No studies were identified that examined chest wall leaning. Three studies reported an inverse relationship between chest compression rate and depth.

      Conclusion

      This scoping review did not identify sufficient new evidence that would justify conducting new systematic reviews or reconsideration of current resuscitation guidelines. This scoping review does highlight significant gaps in the research evidence related to chest compression components, namely a lack of high-level evidence, paucity of studies of in-hospital cardiac arrest, and failure to account for the possibility of interactions between chest compression components.

      Keywords

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