The accuracy of the Broselow tape as a weight estimation tool and a drug-dosing guide – A systematic review and meta-analysis



      The Broselow tape is widely used as a weight-estimation device and drug-dosing guide aid, but concerns about its accuracy and its efficacy have emerged in the last decade. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to analyse the accuracy of the Broselow tape as a weight estimation device and review evidence of its utility as a drug-dosing guide.


      This was a MOOSE-driven systematic review and meta-analysis, which focused on studies evaluating the accuracy of the Broselow tape and studies reviewing its use as a drug-dosing aid.

      Main results

      The tape has undergone substantial changes over the years, but there was no evidence to show that the changes have improved weight-estimation performance. The weight-estimation accuracy of the tape was suboptimal in all populations, with just over 50% of children receiving an estimation within 10% of their actual weight. The overestimation of weight in low- and middle-income countries was often extreme. This indicated a significant potential for potentially harmful medication errors. The limited available evidence on the value of the tape as a drug-dosing guide indicated that the tape was frequently used incorrectly and contained insufficient information to function without additional resources.


      The Broselow tape lacked sufficient accuracy as a weight estimation and drug-dosing tool when compared to other available techniques. In addition, the Broselow tape contains insufficient drug-dosing information to function as a complete resuscitation aid without additional material. The frequent rate of incorrect usage of the tape indicated that appropriate training with the tape is mandatory to reduce errors.


      2D (two-dimensional), 3D (three-dimensional), APLS (Advanced Paediatric Life Support formula), ARC (Australian Resuscitation Council formula), BG (Best Guess formula), BMI (body mass index (kg/m2)), BT (Broselow tape), DWEM (devised weight-estimating method), ED (emergency department), EMS (emergency medical services), EPLS (European life support formula), FE (fixed effects), HCP (healthcare provider), IBW (ideal body weight), IQR (interquartile range), IV (inverse variance), MAC (mid-arm circumference), MPE (mean percentage error), MT (mercy tape), NCHS (National Centre for Health Statistics), PAWPER (paediatric advanced weight prediction in the emergency room), PW10 (percentage of estimates within 10% of actual weight (%)), PW20 (percentage of estimates within 20% of actual weight (%)), RE (random effects), TBW (total body weight), TJ (Traub-Johnson formula), TK (Traub-Kichen formula)


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Resuscitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Deboer S.
        • Seaver M.
        • Broselow J.
        Color coding to reduce errors.
        Am J Nurs. 2005; 105: 68-71
        • Lubitz D.S.
        • Seidel J.S.
        • Chameides L.
        • Luten R.C.
        • Zaritsky A.L.
        • Campbell F.W.
        A rapid method for estimating weight and resuscitation drug dosages from length in the pediatric age group.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1988; 17: 576-581
        • Hughes G.
        • Spoudeas H.
        • Kovar I.Z.
        • Millington H.T.
        Tape measure to aid prescription in paediatric resuscitation.
        Arch Emerg Med. 1990; 7: 21-27
        • Milne K.
        • Yasin A.
        • Knight J.
        • Noel D.
        • Lubell R.
        • Filler G.
        Ontario children have outgrown the Broselow tape.
        Can J Emerg Med. 2012; 14: 25-30
        • Nieman C.T.
        • Manacci C.F.
        • Super D.M.
        • Mancuso C.
        • Fallon Jr., W.F.
        Use of the Broselow tape may result in the underresuscitation of children.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2006; 13: 1011-1019
        • Clark M.C.
        • Lewis R.J.
        • Fleischman R.J.
        • Ogunniyi A.A.
        • Patel D.S.
        • Donaldson R.I.
        Accuracy of the broselow tape in south Sudan, the hungriest place on earth.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2016; 23: 21-28
        • Dicko A.
        • Alhousseini M.L.
        • Sidibé B.
        • Traoré M.
        • Abdel-Rahman S.M.
        Evaluation of the Mercy weight estimation method in Ouelessebougou, Mali.
        BMC Public Health. 2014; 14: 270
        • Batmanabane G.
        • Kumar Jena P.
        • Dikshit R.
        • Abdel-Rahman S.M.
        Using the Mercy Method for weight estimation in Indian children.
        Global Pediatric Health. 2015; : 1-7
        • Hohenhaus S.M.
        • Frush K.S.
        Pediatric patient safety: common problems in the use of resuscitative aids for simplifying pediatric emergency care.
        J Emerg Nurs. 2004; 30: 49-51
        • Moreira M.E.
        • Hernandez C.
        • Stevens A.D.
        • Jones S.
        • Sande M.
        • Blumen J.R.
        • et al.
        Color-coded prefilled medication syringes decrease time to delivery and dosing error in simulated Emergency Department pediatric resuscitations.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2015;
        • Kleinman M.E.
        • Chameides L.
        • Schexnayder S.M.
        • Samson R.A.
        • Hazinski M.F.
        • Atkins D.L.
        • et al.
        Pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care.
        Pediatrics. 2010; 126: e1361-e1399
        • Waseem M.
        • Chen J.
        • Leber M.
        • Giambrone A.E.
        • Gerber L.M.
        A reexamination of the accuracy of the Broselow Tape as an instrument for weight estimation.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2017;
        • Williamson P.R.
        • Lancaster G.A.
        • Craig J.V.
        • Smyth R.L.
        Meta-analysis of method comparison studies.
        Stat Med. 2002; 21: 2013-2025
        • Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
        Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) Obesity Prevalence 1990–2013.
        Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), Seattle, United States2014
        • Dearlove C.B.
        • Dearlove O.
        Visual estimation of children's weights.
        Anaesthesia. 1999; 54: 1228-1229
        • Kun W.
        • Cheng K.
        • Yuen M.
        • Tung W.
        How good is the Broselow tape measurement for estimation of body weights in paediatric patients for application in Hong Kong?.
        Hong Kong J Paediatr. 2000; 5: 25-30
        • Black K.
        • Barnett P.
        • Wolfe R.
        • Young S.
        Are methods used to estimate weight in children accurate?.
        Emerg Med. 2002; 14: 160-165
        • Hofer C.K.
        • Ganter M.
        • Tucci M.
        • Klaghofer R.
        • Zollinger A.
        How reliable is length-based determination of body weight and tracheal tube size in the paediatric age group? The Broselow tape reconsidered.
        Br J Anaesth. 2002; 88: 283-285
        • Argall J.A.
        • Wright N.
        • Mackway-Jones K.
        • Jackson R.
        A comparison of two commonly used methods of weight estimation.
        Arch Dis Childhood. 2003; 88: 789-790
        • Potier K.
        Broselow tape or APLS formula to estimate weight in children.
        Emerg Med J. 2006;
        • Varghese A.
        • Vasudevan V.K.
        • Lewin S.
        • Indumathi C.K.
        • Dinakar C.
        • Subba Rao S.D.
        Do the length-based (Broselow®) tape, APLS, Argall and Nelson's formulae accurately estimate weight of Indian children?.
        Indian Pediatr. 2006; 43: 889-894
        • DuBois D.
        • Baldwin S.
        • King W.D.
        Accuracy of weight estimation methods for children.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007; 23: 227-230
        • Hashikawa A.
        • Juhn Y.
        • Homme J.
        • Gardner B.
        • Moore B.
        Does length-based resuscitation tape accurately place pediatric patients into appropriate color-coded zones?.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007; 23: 856-861
        • Im T.
        • Kang B.
        • Choi H.
        • Won T.
        • Yeon J.
        A study on the accuracy of weight estimation using the Broselow tape in Korean children.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50: S40
        • Jang H.Y.
        • Shin S.D.
        • Kwak Y.H.
        Can the Broselow tape be used to estimate weight and endotracheal tube size in Korean children?.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14: 489-491
        • Krieser D.
        • Nguyen K.
        • Kerr D.
        • Jolley D.
        • Clooney M.
        • Kelly A.M.
        Parental weight estimation of their child's weight is more accurate than other weight estimation methods for determining children's weight in an emergency department?.
        Emerg Med J. 2007; 24: 756-759
        • Patel A.
        • Zikos V.
        • Rzechula K.
        • McQuillen K.
        The accuracy of pediatric weight in the Emergency Department: do caregiver weight estimates measure up?.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50: S123-S124
        • Zikos V.
        • Patel A.
        • Rzechula K.K.M.
        The accuracy of pediatric weight in the emergency department: do caregiver weight estimates measure up?.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50: S123-S124
        • Ramarajan N.
        • Krishnamoorthi R.
        • Strehlow M.
        • Quinn J.
        • Mahadevan S.V.
        Internationalizing the Broselow tape: how reliable is weight estimation in Indian children.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15: 431-436
        • Zink K.
        • Bohn M.
        • Hood T.
        • Topp R.V.
        • Berger J.
        A comparison of methods of assessing patient body weight in the pediatric emergency department.
        Ky Nurse. 2008; 56: 12
        • Anstett D.
        • Bawden J.
        • Moylette E.
        Does the Broselow tape accurately estimate the weight of healthy Irish children?.
        Can J Emerg Med. 2009; 11: 289
        • Cattamanchi S.
        • Banala S.
        • Trichur S.V.
        Assessing competency of the Broselow-Luten pediatric resuscitation tape: a prospective, cross sectional, analytical study of 15, 000 Indian school children.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 54: S130-S131
        • Cattermole G.N.
        • Leung M.
        • Mak P.
        • So H.K.
        • Graham C.A.
        • Rainer T.H.
        Children's weights correlate more strongly with mid-arm circumference (MAC) than with age, height or foot-length.
        J Emerg Med. 2009; 37: 228-229
        • So T.Y.
        • Farrington E.
        • Absher R.K.
        Evaluation of the accuracy of different methods used to estimate weights in the pediatric population.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123: e1045-e1051
        • Stewart D.
        Accuracy of the Broselow tape for estimating paediatric weight in two Australian Emergency Departments.
        University of Sydney, 2009 (Available from:)
        • Yamamoto L.G.
        • Inaba A.S.
        • Young L.L.
        • Anderson K.M.
        Improving length-based weight estimates by adding a body habitus (obesity) icon.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2009; 27: 810-815
        • Casey J.
        • Borland M.
        Best Guess method: a further external validation study and comparison with other methods.
        Emerg Med Aust. 2010; 22: 68-74
        • Cattermole G.N.
        • Leung P.Y.
        • Mak P.S.
        • Graham C.A.
        • Rainer T.H.
        Mid-arm circumference can be used to estimate children's weights.
        Resuscitation. 2010; 81: 1105-1110
        • Lulic I.
        • Kovic I.
        Comparing methods for weight estimation of children: a preliminary study.
        Resuscitation. 2010; 81: S77
        • Bourdeau S.
        • Copeland J.
        • Milne W.K.
        Accuracy of the Broselow tape in estimating the weight of First Nations children.
        Can J Rural Med. 2011; 16: 121-125
        • Geduld H.
        • Hodkinson P.W.
        • Wallis L.A.
        Validation of weight estimation by age and length based methods in the Western Cape, South Africa population.
        Emerg Med J. 2011; 28: 856-860
        • Knight J.C.
        • Nazim M.
        • Riggs D.
        • Channel J.
        • Mullet C.
        • Vaughan R.
        • et al.
        Is the Broselow tape a reliable indicator for use in all pediatric trauma patients?: a look at a rural trauma center.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011; 27: 479-482
        • Rosenberg M.
        • Greenberger S.
        • Rawal A.
        • Latimer-Pierson J.
        • Thundiyil J.
        Comparison of Broselow tape measurements versus physician estimations of pediatric weights.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2011; 29: 482-488
        • Abdel-Rahman S.M.
        • Ridge A.L.
        An improved pediatric weight estimation strategy.
        Open Med Dev J. 2012; 4: 87-97
        • Heyming T.
        • Bosson N.
        • Kurobe A.
        • Kaji A.H.
        • Gausche-Hill M.
        Accuracy of paramedic Broselow tape use in the prehospital setting.
        Prehospital Emerg Care. 2012; 16: 374-380
        • Park J.
        • Kwak Y.H.
        • Kim do K.
        • Jung J.Y.
        • Lee J.H.
        • Jang H.Y.
        • et al.
        A new age-based formula for estimating weight of Korean children.
        Resuscitation. 2012; 83: 1129-1134
        • Sinha M.
        • Lezine M.W.
        • Frechette A.
        • Foster K.N.
        Weighing the pediatric patient during trauma resuscitation and its concordance with estimated weight using Broselow Luten emergency tape.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012; 28: 544-547
        • Trakulsrichai S.
        • Boonsri C.
        • Chatchaipun P.
        • Chunharas A.
        Accuracy of three methods used for Thai children's body weight estimation.
        J Med Assoc Thailand. 2012; 95: 1194-1199
        • Wozniak R.
        The evaluation of potential weight-estimation methods in a primarily HIV positive cohort in Botswana for use in resource limited settings.
        The University of British Columbia, 2012 (Available from:)
        • Abdel-Rahman S.M.
        • Paul I.M.
        • James L.P.
        • Lewandowski A.
        Evaluation of the Mercy TAPE: performance against the standard for pediatric weight estimation.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2013; 62 (e6): 332-339
        • Abdel-Rahman S.M.
        • Ahlers N.
        • Holmes A.
        • Wright K.
        • Harris A.
        • Weigel J.
        • et al.
        Validation of an improved pediatric weight estimation strategy.
        Journal of Pediatr Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2013; 18: 112-121
        • Akabarian S.
        • Vahedparast H.
        • Ravanipour M.
        • Mirzaei K.
        Comparison of Broselow tape measurements versus mother estimations of pediatric weights.
        Iran South Med J. 2013; 16: 138-143
        • Cattermole G.N.
        • Leung P.Y.
        • Graham C.A.
        • Rainer T.H.
        Too tall for the tape: the weight of schoolchildren who do not fit the Broselow tape.
        Emerg Med J. 2013; ([epub ahead of print])
        • Graves L.
        • Chayen G.
        • Peat J.
        • O'Leary F.
        A comparison of actual to estimated weights in Australian children attending a tertiary children's hospital, using the original and updated APLS, Luscombe and Owens, Best Guess formulae and the Broselow tape.
        Resuscitation. 2014; 85: 392-396
        • House D.R.
        • Ngetich E.
        • Vreeman R.C.
        • Rusyniak D.E.
        Estimating the weight of children in Kenya: do the Broselow tape and age-based formulas measure up?.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2013; 61: 1-8
        • Loo P.Y.
        • Chong S.L.
        • Lek N.
        • Bautista D.
        • Ng K.C.
        Evaluation of three paediatric weight estimation methods in Singapore.
        J Paediatr Child Health. 2013; 49: E311-E316
        • Suh D.
        • Kwak Y.
        • Kim D.
        • Jeong J.
        Estimating weights using the Broselow tape in Korea: comparison of old and new versions of the Broselow tape use.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2013; 62: S109
        • Wells M.
        • Coovadia A.
        • Kramer E.
        • Goldstein L.
        The PAWPER tape: a new concept tape-based device that increases the accuracy of weight estimation in children through the inclusion of a modifier based on body habitus.
        Resuscitation. 2013; 84: 227-232
        • Young T.P.
        • Chen B.G.
        • Kim T.Y.
        • Thorp A.W.
        • Brown L.
        Finger counting: an alternative method for estimating pediatric weights.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2014; 32: 243-247
        • Allison N.
        • Norton I.
        Emergency weight estimation in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Northern Territory: are the current methods accurate?.
        Emerg Med Australas. 2014; 26: 487-493
        • Chiengkriwate P.
        • Donnapee R.
        • Geater A.
        The accuracy of the Broselow tape in the weight estimation of Thai children.
        Asian Biomed. 2014; 8: 799-807
        • Asskaryar F.
        • Shankar R.
        An Indian pediatric emergency weight estimation tool: prospective adjustment of the Broselow tape.
        Int J Emerg Med. 2015; 8: 78
        • Britnell S.
        • Koziol-McLain J.
        Weight estimation in paediatric resuscitation: a hefty issue in New Zealand.
        Emerg Med Australas. 2015; 27: 251-256
        • Chavez H.
        • Peterson R.
        • Lo K.
        • Arel M.
        Weight estimation in an inner city Pediatric Emergency Department: the effect of obesity.
        Am J Emerg Med. 2015; 33: 1364-1367
        • Georgoulas V.
        • Wells M.
        The PAWPER tape and the Mercy Method outperform other methods of weight estimation in children in South Africa.
        South Afr Med J. 2016; 106: 933-939
        • Khouli M.
        • Ortiz M.I.
        • Romo-Hernández G.
        • Martínez-Licona D.
        • Stelzner S.M.
        Use of the broselow tape in a Mexican Emergency Department.
        J Emerg Med. 2015; 48: 660-666
        • O'Leary F.
        • John-Denny B.
        • McGarvey K.
        • Hann A.
        • Pegiazoglou I.
        • Peat J.
        Estimating the weight of ethnically diverse children attending an Australian emergency department: a prospective, blinded, comparison of age-based and length-based tools including Mercy, PAWPER and Broselow.
        Arch Dis Childhood. 2017; 102: 46-52
        • Young T.P.
        • Washington O.
        • Flanery A.
        • Guptill M.
        • Reibling E.T.
        • Brown L.
        • et al.
        Comparison of the finger counting method, the Broselow tape and common weight estimation formulae in Filipino children after Typhoon Haiyan.
        Emerg Med Australas. 2015; 27: 239-244
        • Abdel-Rahman A.
        • Jacobsen R.
        • Watts J.
        • Doyle S.
        • O’Malley D.
        • Hefner T.
        • et al.
        Comparative performance of pediatric weight estimation techniques: a human factor errors analysis.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2015;
        • Talib N.J.
        • Rahm G.
        • Abdel-Rahman S.M.
        Estimating weight in children with Down Syndrome.
        Global Pediatr Health. 2015; 2
        • AlHarbi T.M.
        • AlGarni A.
        • AlGamdi F.
        • Jawish M.
        • Wani T.A.
        • Abu-Shaheen A.K.
        The accuracy of Broselow Tape weight estimate among pediatric population.
        Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016: 7042947
        • Aliyu I.
        • Abdulsalam M.
        Is the broselow tape and APLS formula applicable to nigerian children? The Kano experience.
        Trop J Med Res. 2016; 19: 20-23
        • Bowen L.
        • Zyambo M.
        • Snell D.
        • Kinnear J.
        • Bould M.D.
        Evaluation of the accuracy of common weight estimation formulae in a Zambian paediatric surgical population.
        Anaesthesia. 2017; 72: 470-478
        • Jung J.Y.
        • Kwak Y.H.
        • Kim D.K.
        • Suh D.
        • Chang I.
        • Yoon C.
        • et al.
        An assessment of the accuracy of a novel weight estimation device for children.
        Emerg Med J. 2016;
        • Jung J.
        • Kwon H.
        • Choi Y.
        Methods of weight estimation in pediatric resuscitation.
        Pediatr Emerg Med J. 2016; 3: 9-14
        • Lowe C.G.
        • Campwala R.T.
        • Ziv N.
        • Wang V.J.
        The Broselow and Handtevy Resuscitation Tapes: a comparison of the performance of pediatric weight prediction.
        Prehospital Disaster Med. 2016; 31: 364-375
        • Mishra D.G.
        • Kole T.
        • Nagpal R.
        • Smith J.P.
        A correlation analysis of Broselow Pediatric Emergency Tape-determined pediatric weight with actual pediatric weight in India.
        World J Emerg Med. 2016; 7: 40-43
        • Nosaka N.
        • Fujiwara T.
        • Knaup E.
        • Okada A.
        • Tsukahara H.
        Validity of mothers' reports of children's weight in Japan.
        Acta Medica Okayama. 2016; 70: 255-259
        • Ralston M.E.
        • Myatt M.A.
        Weight estimation tool for children aged 6–59 months in limited-resource settings.
        PLoS One. 2016; 11: e0159260
        • Sahar M.
        • Nordin N.
        • Nor A.
        • Zakaria M.
        Weight estimation method in emergency department in Malaysia: is broselow tape (BT) reliable?.
        Jurnal Teknologi (Sciences & Engineering). 2016; 78: 113-117
        • Tanner D.
        • Negaard A.
        • Huang R.
        • Evans N.
        • Hennes H.
        A prospective evaluation of the accuracy of weight estimation using the Broselow Tape in overweight and obese pediatric patients in the Emergency Department.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2016;
        • Young K.D.
        • Korotzer N.C.
        Weight estimation methods in children: a systematic review.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2016; 68 (e10): 441-451.e10
        • Wells M.
        • Goldstein L.
        • Bentley A.
        A validation study of the PAWPER XL tape: accurate estimation of both total and ideal body weight in children up to 16 years of age.
        Trauma Emerg Care. 2017; 2: 1-8
        • Wells M.
        • Goldstein L.
        • Bentley A.
        Accuracy of weight estimation by the Broselow tape is substantially improved by including a visual assessment of body habitus.
        Pediatric Res. 2017; (in press)
        • Whitfield K.C.
        • Wozniak R.
        • Pradinuk M.
        • Karakochuk C.D.
        • Anabwani G.
        • Daly Z.
        • et al.
        Anthropometric measures are simple and accurate paediatric weight-prediction proxies in resource-poor settings with a high HIV prevalence.
        Arch Dis Child. 2017; 102: 10-16
        • Luten R.C.
        • Wears R.L.
        • Broselow J.
        • Zaritsky A.
        • Barnett T.M.
        • Lee T.
        • et al.
        Length-based endotracheal tube and emergency equipment in pediatrics.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1992; 21: 900-904
        • Lanoix R.
        • Golden J.
        The facilitated pediatric resuscitation room.
        J Emerg Med. 1999; 17: 363-366
        • Hohenhaus S.M.
        Is this a drill? Improving pediatric emergency preparedness in North Carolina's emergency departments.
        J Emerg Nurs. 2001; 27: 568-570
        • Vilke G.M.
        • Marino A.
        • Fisher R.
        • Chan T.C.
        Estimation of pediatric patient weight by EMT-PS.
        J Emerg Med. 2001; 21: 125-128
        • Luten R.
        • Wears R.L.
        • Broselow J.
        • Croskerry P.
        • Joseph M.M.
        • Frush K.
        Managing the unique size-related issues of pediatric resuscitation: reducing cognitive load with resuscitation aids.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2002; 9: 840-847
        • Slishman S.
        • Sapien R.
        • Crandall C.S.
        Introducing a simple, weight-based, color-coded, medication dosing device.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2002; 18: 212-215
        • McDaniel-Hohenhaus S.
        • Frush K.
        Development of an e-learning program for use of the Broselow-Luten pediatric system.
        J Emerg Nurs. 2003; 29: 417
        • Shah A.N.
        • Frush K.
        • Luo X.
        • Wears R.L.
        Effect of an intervention standardization system on pediatric dosing and equipment size determination: a crossover trial involving simulated resuscitation events.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003; 157: 229-236
        • DeBoer S.L.
        • Seaver M.
        • Boatright J.R.
        • Robinson K.
        Pediatric spinal immobilization: c-spines, car seats, and color-coded collars.
        J Emerg Nurs. 2004; 30: 481-484
        • Moore B.
        • Hankins D.
        • Shimmin S.
        Use of the length-based resuscitation tape for estimating pediatric weight in the pre-hospital setting.
        Prehospital Emerg Care. 2004; 8: 87
        • Agarwal S.
        • Swanson S.
        • Murphy A.
        • Yaeger K.
        • Sharek P.
        • Halamek L.P.
        Comparing the utility of a standard pediatric resuscitation cart with a pediatric resuscitation cart based on the Broselow tape: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial involving simulated resuscitation scenarios.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: e326-e333
        • DeBoer S.
        • Seaver M.
        • Broselow J.
        Do you know your ABCs? Airway, breathing, and colour-coding!.
        Australas Emerg Nurs J. 2005; 8: 35-41
        • Hohenhaus S.M.
        • Frush K.S.
        Pediatric patient safety in resuscitation simulations: lessons learned from studying clinician behavior.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2005; 21: 71-75
        • Frush K.
        • Hohenhaus S.
        • Luo X.
        • Gerardi M.
        • Wiebe R.A.
        Evaluation of a Web-based education program on reducing medication dosing error: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial.
        Pediatr Emerg Care. 2006; 22: 62-70
        • Kaji A.H.
        • Gausche-Hill M.
        • Conrad H.
        • Young K.D.
        • Koenig W.J.
        • Dorsey E.
        • et al.
        Emergency medical services system changes reduce pediatric epinephrine dosing errors in the prehospital setting.
        Pediatrics. 2006; 118: 1493-1500
        • Frush K.S.
        Medication errors in pediatric emergency care: developing a national standard?.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2007; 50: 369-370
        • Luten R.C.
        • Zaritsky A.
        • Wears R.
        • Broselow J.
        The use of the Broselow tape in pediatric resuscitation.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2007; 14 (author reply 501-2): 500-501
        • Fineberg S.L.
        • Arendts G.
        Comparison of two methods of pediatric resuscitation and critical care management.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52 (e13): 35-40
        • Luten R.C.
        • Broselow J.
        Standardization of product concentration in emergency dosing: a response to Fineberg and Arendt.
        Ann Emerg Med. 2008; 52 (author reply 478): 477-478
        • Wells M.
        • Kramer E.
        Optimizing emergency drug dosing in children.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15: 1325
        • Feleke R.
        • Kalynych C.J.
        • Lundblom B.
        • Wears R.
        • Luten R.
        • Kling D.
        Color coded medication safety system reduces community pediatric emergency nursing medication errors.
        J Patient Saf. 2009; 5: 79-85
        • Pinchevsky L.E.
        • Pesaturo K.A.
        • Smith B.S.
        • Hartman C.A.
        Pilot comparison of three cardiopulmonary resuscitation medication dosing strategies in overweight children.
        J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther. 2010; 15: 282-289
        • Kelly A.
        Estimation of children's weight in medical emergencies.
        in: Preedy V. Handbook of anthropometry: Physical measures of human form in health and disease. Springer-Verlag, New York2012: 1151-1161
        • Lammers R.
        • Byrwa M.
        • Fales W.
        Root causes of errors in a simulated prehospital pediatric emergency.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2012; 19: 37-47
        • Meguerdichian M.J.
        • Clapper T.C.
        The Broselow tape as an effective medication dosing instrument: a review of the literature.
        J Pediatr Nurs. 2012; 27: 416-420
        • Abdel-Rahman S.M.
        • Ridge A.
        • Kearns G.L.
        Estimation of body weight in children in the absence of scales: a necessary measurement to insure accurate drug dosing.
        Arch Dis Childhood. 2014; 99: 570-574
        • Lammers R.
        • Willoughby-Byrwa M.
        • Fales W.
        Medication errors in prehospital management of simulated pediatric anaphylaxis.
        Prehospital Emerg Care. 2014; 18: 295-304
        • Stevens A.D.
        • Hernandez C.
        • Jones S.
        • Moreira M.E.
        • Blumen J.R.
        • Hopkins E.
        • et al.
        Color-coded prefilled medication syringes decrease time to delivery and dosing errors in simulated prehospital pediatric resuscitations: a randomized crossover trial.
        Resuscitation. 2015; 96: 85-91
        • Rappaport L.D.
        • Brou L.
        • Givens T.
        • Mandt M.
        • Balakas A.
        • Roswell K.
        • et al.
        Comparison of errors using two length-based tape systems for prehospital care in children.
        Prehosp Emerg Care. 2016; 20: 508-517
        • Wells M.
        • Goldstein L.
        • Botha M.
        Emergency drug dosing in children.
        Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, Edinburgh2012
        • Marlow R.
        • Lo D.
        • Walton L.
        Accurate paediatric weight estimation by age: mission impossible?.
        Arch Dis Child. 2011; 96: A1-A2
        • Cattermole G.N.
        • Leung M.P.
        • So H.K.
        • Mak P.S.
        • Graham C.A.
        • Rainer T.H.
        Age-based formulae to estimate children's weight in the emergency department.
        Emerg Med J. 2011; 28: 390-396
        • Cattermole G.N.
        • Graham C.A.
        • Rainer T.H.
        Age-based weight prediction is imprecise.
        Emerg Med J. 2011; 29: 82-83
        • Wells M.
        • Goldstein L.
        • Bentley A.
        It is time to abandon age-based emergency weight estimation in children! A failed validation of 20 different age-based formulas.
        Resuscitation. 2017; 116: 73-83
        • Losek J.D.
        • Garland J.
        • Nelson D.B.
        Body habitus + height = accurate weight estimate.
        Ann Emerg Med. 1989; 18: 709
        • Advanced Life Support Group
        Advanced Paediatric Life Support: The Practical Approach (APLS).
        5th edition. BMJ Books – Publisher: John Wiley & Sons (Wiley-Blackwell), 2011
        • Sandell J.M.
        • Charman S.C.
        Can age-based estimates of weight be safely used when resuscitating children?.
        Emerg Med J. 2009; 26: 43-47
        • Theron L.
        • Adams A.
        • Jansen K.
        • Robinson E.
        Emergency weight estimation in Pacific Island and Maori children who are large-for-age.
        Emerg Med Australas. 2005; 17: 238-243
        • Luten R.
        • Zaritsky A.
        The sophistication of simplicity… optimizing emergency dosing.
        Acad Emerg Med. 2008; 15: 461-465
        • Berman N.G.
        • Parker R.A.
        Meta-analysis: neither quick nor easy.
        BMC Med Res Methodol. 2002; 2: 10
        • Kozer E.
        • Scolnik D.
        • Macpherson A.
        • Keays T.
        • Shi K.
        • Luk T.
        • et al.
        Variables associated with medication errors in paediatric emergency medicine.
        Pediatrics. 2002; 110: 737-742
        • Kaufmann J.
        • Laschat M.
        • Wappler F.
        Medication errors in pediatric emergencies: a systematic analysis.
        Deutsches Ärzteblatt Int. 2012; 109: 609-616