Regional variability in survival outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: The All-Japan Utstein Registry



      There is a paucity of studies on the degree of regional variability in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) outcomes, particularly in neurological outcome. This study aimed to determine whether there is a significant regional variation in survival outcomes of OHCA across Japan.


      We analyzed a prospective, nation-wide, population-based database (All-Japan Utstein Registry) involving all Japanese individuals who had non-traumatic OHCA resuscitated by emergency responders from January 2005 through December 2010. The primary study endpoint was favourable neurological survival at 1 month, defined as Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2. We compared unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted rates of the outcome among seven geographic regions.


      In the total catchment population of 128 million, there were 539,641 non-traumatic OHCA patients. Unadjusted neurologically favourable survival varied across regions from 1.9% to 3.1% (rate difference, 1.2%; 95%CI, 1.0–1.3%); the Northeast region had a significantly lower rate compared to the Midwest region (unadjusted rate ratio, 0.62; 95%CI, 0.60–0.64). This disparity became larger after adjusting for patient- and prehospital-level confounders (adjusted rate ratio, 0.52; 95%CI, 0.51–0.54). Among 35,153 OHCA patients with return of spontaneous circulation, unadjusted neurologically favourable survival varied from 26.4% to 34.7% (rate difference, 8.3%; 95%CI, 6.6–10.1%); the East region had a significantly lower rate compared to the Midwest region (adjusted rate ratio, 0.72; 95%CI, 0.68–0.76).


      In this prospective, nation-wide, population-based study in Japan, we found a two-fold regional difference in neurologically favourable survival after OHCA, suggesting regional disparities in prehospital care and in-hospital post-resuscitation care.


      VF (ventricular fibrillation), VT (ventricular tachycardia)


      EMS (emergency medical service), VF (ventricular fibrillation), VT (pulseless ventricular tachycardia), CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation), AED (automated external defibrillator), IQR (interquartile range)


      CI (confidence interval)


      CI (confidence interval), VF (ventricular fibrillation), VT (ventricular tachycardia)


      CI (confidence interval)


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