Virtual reality enhanced mannequin (VREM) that is well received by resuscitation experts



      The objective of this study was to test acceptance of, and interest in, a newly developed prototype of virtual reality enhanced mannequin (VREM) on a sample of congress attendees who volunteered to participate in the evaluation session and to respond to a specifically designed questionnaire.


      A commercial Laerdal HeartSim 4000 mannequin was developed to integrate virtual reality (VR) technologies with specially developed virtual reality software to increase the immersive perception of emergency scenarios. To evaluate the acceptance of a virtual reality enhanced mannequin (VREM), we presented it to a sample of 39 possible users. Each evaluation session involved one trainee and two instructors with a standardized procedure and scenario: the operator was invited by the instructor to wear the data-gloves and the head mounted display and was briefly introduced to the scope of the simulation. The instructor helped the operator familiarize himself with the environment. After the patient's collapse, the operator was asked to check the patient's clinical conditions and start CPR. Finally, the patient started to recover signs of circulation and the evaluation session was concluded. Each participant was then asked to respond to a questionnaire designed to explore the trainee's perception in the areas of user-friendliness, realism, and interaction/immersion.


      Overall, the evaluation of the system was very positive, as was the feeling of immersion and realism of the environment and simulation. Overall, 84.6% of the participants judged the virtual reality experience as interesting and believed that its development could be very useful for healthcare training.


      The prototype of the virtual reality enhanced mannequin was well-liked, without interfence by interaction devices, and deserves full technological development and validation in emergency medical training.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Resuscitation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Issenberg S.B.
        • McGaghie W.C.
        • Petrusa E.R.
        • Lee G.D.
        • Scalese R.J.
        Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review.
        Med Teach. 2005; 27: 10-28
        • Perkins G.D.
        Simulation in resuscitation training.
        Resuscitation. 2007; 73: 202-211
        • Gaba D.M.
        The future vision of simulation in health care.
        Qual Saf Health Care. 2004; 13: 2-10
        • Seropian M.A.
        General concepts in full scale simulation: getting started.
        Anesth Analg. 2003; 97: 1695-1705
        • Haansa A.
        • Ijsselsteijn W.
        Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions.
        Virtual Real. 2006; 9: 149-159
        • Burdea G.
        • Coiffet P.
        Virtual Reality Technology.
        John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York1994
        • Pertaub D.P.
        • Slater M.
        • Barker C.
        An experiment on public speaking anxiety in response to three different types of virtual audience.
        Presence-Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 2002; 11: 68-78
        • Garau M.
        The responses of people to virtual humans in an immersive virtual environment.
        Presence: Teleoperators Virtual Environ. 2005; 14: 104-116
        • Slater M.
        A virtual reprise of the stanley milgram obedience experiments.
        PLoS ONE. 2006; 1: e39
        • Biryukova E.V.
        • Yourovskayam V.Z.
        A model of human hand dynamics.
        Adv Biomech Hand Wrist. 1994; : 107-122
        • Kuch J.J.
        • Huang T.S.
        Human computer interaction via the human hand: a hand model.
        in: Twenty-Eighty Asilomar Conference on Signal, Systems, and Computers. 1994: 1252-1256
        • Likert R.
        Technique for the measurement of attitudes.
        Arch Psychol. 1932; 192: 55
        • Gurusamy K.
        • Aggarwal R.
        • Palanivelu L.
        • Davidson B.R.
        Systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of virtual reality training for laparoscopic surgery.
        Br J Surg. 2008; 95: 1088-1097
        • DeVita M.A.
        • Schaefer J.
        • Lutz J.
        • Wang H.
        • Dongilli T.
        Improving medical emergency team (MET) performance using a novel curriculum and a computerized human patient simulator.
        Qual Saf Health Care. 2005; 14: 326-331